Interpreter Cheatsheet

Medical Conditions

Terms in this page are grouped by medical conditions. Currently we have:

  • Multiple sclerosis (contributor: 方必怡)

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Multiple sclerosis (多发性硬化症); Central nervous system (中枢神经系统); Nerve impulses (神经信息传递); Spinal cord (脊髓); Optic nerves (视神经);

Optic neuritis (视神经炎); Muscular spasms (肌肉衰退); Vertigo (眩晕(感觉从高处摔倒)); Neuralgia (神经痛); Long intervals between attacks (发作间隙期长); Tremor (震颤);

Steroid medication (类固醇药物) (such as methylprednisolone :如甲基培尼皮质醇)

Immune suppressants (免疫抑制剂); Mitoxantrone (米托蒽醌);

Patient information:

Active Lesions:活跃病灶: lesion that are new or developing hardened areas (scars) where myelin, the protective coating around your nerves, has been damaged.

B cell: B细胞:a type of immune cell found in the immune system. B cells are lymphocytes that help to fight infections by secreting antibodies. They also help other cells of the immune system to recognise and respond to infectious agents.

Blister pack(口服制剂包装): a type of pre-formed plastic packaging containing a cavity or pocket in which your medication sits.

Disability progression(残疾进展): how well you are functioning each day (including how each day (including how well you move, see and think). It is measured using different tools and scales.

Fertility(生育能力): the ability to conceive children

Immune system(免疫系统): the organs and processes of the body that help resist and fight infection and toxins. Organs of the immune system include the bone marrow and lymph nodes.

Inflammation:(炎症): a localized, physical response to injury or infection

Lymphopenia(淋巴细胞减少症): an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood, also known as lymphocytopenia

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(核磁共振): a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopath (PML)进展性多发性脑白质炎):a rare viral brain infection caused by the John Cunningham virus (JC virus), which is normally kept under control by the immune system. The JC virus is harmless except in patients with weakened immune systems. PML is characterized by progressive damage or inflammation of white matter in the brain at multiple locations.

Relapse(复发):new or worsening multiple sclerosis symptoms (also know as flare-ups, attracts or exacerbation)
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis(RRMS):(复发缓解型):the most common form of multiple sclerosis. Patients with RRMS experience clear episodes of inflammatory activity(relapses). During a relapse, there are new or worsening symptoms. Relapses are followed by remission, during which the disease does not progress. Residual symptoms may remain during remission.

Secondary progressive (SPMS): (继发进行型)a relapsing-remitting course which later becomes steadily progressive. Attacks and partial recoveries may continue to occur. Of the 70-75% who start with relapsing-remitting disease, more than 50% will develop SPMS within 10 years;

Shingles(also known as Herpes zoster)(带状疱疹): a viral disease caused by varicella-zoster virus
T Cell:(T细胞) a type of immune cell found in the immune system. T cells are lymphocytes and there are two main categories: killer T cells and helper T cells. Killer T cells are involved in recognizing and destroying cells that are infected with viruses or bacteria. Helper T cells help other cells of the immune system to respond to infections.